These major strike-slip faults are called ___ ____. The surface sedimentary rock formations that are exposed in the fold, range in age from 66-360 million years. buried, an environment where these rocks experienced elevated temperatures and pressures. The first stage in the development of Andean - type mountain belts, named after the _____ Mountain of South America, occurs along ___ _____ _____. Its NW–SE trend (Figure 1) is similar to that of many folds within the Rocky Mountains, although some others formed at acute angles to the regional compression [ Erslev, 1993 ]. By contrast, at transform fault boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault, shear stress causes _____ segments of Earth's crust to slip ______ past one another. These displaced crustal blocks include much of southeast Asia, region between India and China, and sections of ____. Progressive deformation during Laramide fold growth maintained and enhanced fluid flow networks and locally enhanced porosity. In these situations, a collision between the crustal fragment and the continental _____ occurs. came into existence 100 million years ago. The subduction zone that facilitated India's northward ______ was near the southern margin of ____. Mississippian-age collapse breccia bodies were identified as preexisting weak horizons for focused hydrothermal fluid flow during the Laramide. some strike-slip faults slice through Earth's crust and accomodate motion between two tectonic plates. This thick, cold slab of crustal material has been intact for more than 2 billion years and is mechanically strong as a _____. Prior to the breakup of _______, India was located between _____ and _______ in the Southern Hemisphere. The trend of the anticline parallels that … Some outcrops have a sequence of interbedded weak and strong rock layers that have been moderately deformed by folding. A good example of topography that results when erosional forces attack folded sedimentary strata is found in the __, Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachians. Sheep Mountain Anticline, located near Greybull along the east flank of the Bighorn Basin is a well known and typical, northwest-southeast trending, Laramide fold. Folds are geologic structures consisting of stacks of originally ____ surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, that have been bent as a result of permanent deformation. The ____ ____ form when igneous rocks cool and develop shrinkage fractures that produce elongated, pillarlike columns. NCALM Seed. This portion of a mountain belt often preserves slivers of oceanic lithosphere that were trapped between the colliding plates. This doubly-plunging asymmetrical anticline is deeply dissected and exposes strata ranging in age from the Mississippian (Madison Formation) to the Paleocene (Ft. Union Formation). The Black Hills of western South Dakota is a large structural ____ generated by upwarping. Sudden movements along faults cause most _____. is the force that acts to deform rock bodies, is the resulting deformation or distortion or change in the shape in the rock body. Consequently, the arrival of a crustal fragment at a trench results in a collision and usually ends further ____. An anticline is a geologic formation where the strata slope downward on either side of a crest, and this particular mountain is one of the more famous examples of this kind of formation. The answer lies in the nature of these diverse crustal blocks. in fact, rock salt is so weak that large masses of it often rise through overlying beds of ___ ___, much as hot magma rises towards Earth's surface. The ___ ____ of the United States provides a modern example of a passive continental margin where sedimentation has produced a thick platform of shallow-water sandstones, limestones, and shales. In map view, a plunging syncline makes a U-shaped or V-shaped pattern that opens in the direction of plunge. The two most common folds are _____ and ___. This is opposite order of a dome, such as the Black Hills, where the ____ rocks form the core. Additional materials are derived from an adjacent continent or or ___ ___ and consists of volcanic debris and products of weathering and erosion. Fly to “Greybull, Wyoming” and explore Sheep Mountain just to the North. Fracture network geometry was identified as a major control on fluid migration within the structure that has provided conduits for episodic hydrothermal fluid flow. Most high angle reverse faults are ___ and accomodate local displacements in regions dominated by other types of faulting. This is an excellent view of the succession from the Triassic Gypsum Springs Formation (The white rim around the valley bottom) through the Permian Phosphoria Formation (The heavily fractured white limestone and dolostone of the hinge). Detailed studies of the Appalachians indicate that the formation of this mountain belt was complex and resulted from ____ distinct episodes of mountain building. during elastic deformation, the chemical bonds of the minerals within a rock are stretched but do not break. Crustal shortening accommodated some of this motion. Hydrothermal solutions (mineralized fluds) can migrate into fractured host rocks and precipitate economially significant amounts of copper, silver, gold, zinc, lead, and uranium. Weak rocks that are most likely to behave in a ductile manner (bend or flow) when subjected to differential stress include. The Sheep Mountain Anticline is a fold generated during the Laramide mountain building event from 70 to 50 million years ago. These compressional mountains contain large quantities of preexisting ____ and ___ rocks that have been faulted and contorted into a series of folds. The large fold seen in the sedimentary rocks at Sheep Mountain was created by crystalline basement rock uplifted along faults that parallel the long axis of the structure along the steeper east flank. When this upwarping produces a circular or slightly elongated structure, the feature is called a ____. MSU uses DSpace software, copyright © 2002-2017  Duraspace, Theses and Dissertations at Montana State University (MSU), https://scholarworks.montana.edu/xmlui/handle/1/9148. Numerous transform faults cut the oceanic lithosphere and link spreading oceanic ridges. which exhibits the opposite sense of displacement is a well known example of a left-lateral strike-slip fault. ____________________ is a general term that refers to the changes in the shape or position of a rock body in response to differential stress. Plunging anticline. This event also displaced and further deformed the shelf sediments and sedimentary rocks that had once flanked the eastern margin of North ____. The zone may be up to several kilometers wide. Sheep Mountain anticline is located on the eastern flank of the Bighorn Basin (Figure 1a), north central Wyoming, north of the town of Greybull. The limb of an anticline is also a limb of the adjacent _____. The Sheep Mountain Anticline is situated between the towns of Lovell and Greybull in the northwest part of Wyoming; its long, narrow, and perfectly straight crest is an easily recognizable sight from many areas around the Big Horn Basin. Young mountain belts include the ____ ____, which runs along the western margin of the Americas from Cape Horn at the tip of South America to Alaska and includes the Andes: the Alpine-Himalaya chain, which extends along the margin of the Mediterranean, through Iran to northern India and into Indochina; and the mountainous terrains of the western Pacific, which include volcanic island arcs that comprise Japan, the Philippines, and Sumatra. Some features of this site may not work without it. 2. Alpine - Type Mountain Building: Continental. During the breakup of _____, the eastern portion of the Pacific basin: Farallon plate began to subduct under the western margin of ____ ___. In addition, volcanic island arcs and other crustal fragments drift across the ocean ____ until they reach a subduction zone, where they collide and become welded to another crustal fragment or a larger continental block. Movements along these faults produced alternating uplifted fault blocks called __, are tilted fault blocks, also contribute to the alternating topographic highs and lows in the Basin and Range Province. Seismic evidence suggests that a portion of the ______ subcontinent was thrust beneath ___-a distance of perhaps 250 miles. The monocline consists of bent sedimentary beds that were deformed by faulting in the bedrock below. In addition, mountain belts of similar origin formed during the same period and were once ______ are found in the British Isles, Scandanavia, northwestern Africa, and Greenland. The Sheep Mountain, Wyoming (figure above) is an example of … A plunging syncline. In Western United States, large normal faults are associated with structures called ____ ___ ___. By contrast, sedimentary rocks that are weakly cemented or metamorphic rocks that contain zones of weakness, such as _____, are more susceptible to ____ deformation. Mountain building has occurred in recent geologic past at several locations around the ___. Periodic volcanic activity, the emplacement of igneous plutons at depth, and the accumulation of sediment that is scraped from the subducting plate gradually increase the volume of crustal material ___________ the upper plate. example: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming is an example of a plunging anticline A good example of topography that results when erosional forces attack folded sedimentary strata is found in the __ Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachians Pollard Dept. The Weald–Artois Anticline is a major anticline which outcrops in southeast England and northern France. earliest scientific records of a strike-slip faulting were made following surface ruptures that produce large earthquakes, Because movement along the San Andreas Fault causes the crustal block on the opposite side of the fault to move to the right as you face the fault, it is called a ___ ___ strike-slip fault. Subduction along these active continental margins is associated with long-lasting magmatic activity that builds _____ ____ ____. The theory of ______ _____ provides a model for orogenesis with excellent explanatory power and accounts for the origin of virtually all the present mountain belts and most of the ancient ones. Map 1: This structure is the Sheep Mountain anticline in Wyoming. Outcrops of the folded and thrust-faulted structures that characterize collisional mountains are found as far inland as central ____ and ____ ____. Mountain belts that were formed by the closure of major ocean basins include the: Continental collisions result in the development of mountain characterized by shortened and thickened crust, achieved through _______ and large- scale thrust faulting. Whenever the stresses acting on a rock body exceed its strength, the rock will deform by: when stress is applied unequally in different directions. Some large volcanic island arcs, such as _____, owe their size to having been built on fragments of continental crust that have rifted from a large landmass or the joining of multiple island arcs over time. Little Sheep Mountain is a doubly-plunging asymmetric anticline in the northeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. A monocline. This activity resulted in the piecemeal addition of crustal fragments to the entire Pacific margin of the continent --from Mexico's _____ Penisula to northern Alaska. Running northwest to southeast for about 15 miles, the formation is dissected in the middle by the Big Horn River, which runs through the 1,000-foot deep Sheep Mountain Canyon (also known as the Black Canyon). PI: David Pollard, Stanford University. It was formed from the late Oligocene to middle Miocene, during the Alpine orogeny.. North America. The result is crustal _____, with the crust reaching thicknesses of more than ___ miles. The resulting wedge emerges to form the island of _____. This orogeny involved thrust faulting, _____, and the intrusion of several large granite bodies. Without compressional forces to support them, mountains gradually collapse under their own weight. Our simplified overview begins roughly ____ million years ago, with the breakup of a supercontinent called ____ that predates ______. California's Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, and Great Valley are excellent examples of tectonic structures that are typically generated along an _____ type subduction zone. Salt domes are economically important rock structures because when ____ migrates upward, the surrounding oil-bearing sedimentary strata deform to form ____ reservoirs. Rather than subduct, the upper crustal layers of these thickened zones are peeled from the descending plate and ____ in relatively thin sheets on the adjacent continental block. By contrast, the term terrain is used when describing the shape of the surface topography or "_____of the ____". Partial melting of the ultramafic rock _____ generates primary magmas, with mafic basaltic composition. At some point, the forces that drive plate motions change, and a subduction zone develops along the margin of the _____. The southern end of Sheep Mountain is above the tree line and consists of rocky cliffs that are referred to as the "Sleeping Indian" due to their appearance as viewed from Jackson Hole. 11.29, when India continued its northward trek, parts of Asia were squeezed ____, out of the collision zone. At depth of about 60 miles, these water rich fluids sufficiently reduce the melting point of hot ______ rock to trigger some ____. 3. The blue line down the center of the fold represents the axial trace, or the line that separates the two dipping limbs of the fold. Similar to the breakup of Pangaea, this episode of continental rifting and seafloor spreading generated a new ocean between the _____ continental blocks. Hydrothermal breccia bodies represent discrete vertical fluid conduits controlled by fracture geometry through which hydrothermal fluids migrated. As large blocks of basement rock were displaced upward, the comparatively ductile sedimentary strata above responded by draping over the fault like clothes hanging over a bench. Faulting related to Laramide deformation has led to extensive fracturing and brecciation in Little Sheep Mountain anticline. Crustal movements of a few meters occur along faults during major ____. Sheep Mountain is in the Gros Ventre Wilderness of Bridger-Teton National Forest. The formation of the Himalayas was followed by a period of ____ that raised the ______ Plateau. Throughout history, portions of the Great Valley lay below sea level. The correlation between mountain building and the ____ of crustal fragments arose primarily from studies conducted in the North American Cordillera. The white Muddy sand of the black Thermopolis shale appears at the center of view and bends around the nose of the anticline to extend along strike at the left. Continued ascent through the thick _____ crust is generally achieved through magmatic differentiation, in which heavy ferromagnesian minerals crystallize and settle out of the magmas, leaving the remaining melt enriched in silica and other light components. Each collision displaces earlier accreted ______ further inland, adding to the zone of ________ as well as to the thickness and lateral extent of the continental margin. Broad upwarps in basement rock may deform the overlying cover of sedimentary strata and generate large folds. 6.5. Lidar data were collected on July 13, 2007 of the Sheep Mountain Anticline. The basic geologic features that form as a result of the forces generated by the interactions of tectonic plates are called ____ ____ or ____ _____. View to southeast. highly ____ rocks present a risk to construction projects, including bridges, highways, and dams. More model information This model shows the northern end of Sheep Mountain in central Wyoming. Differential stress can also change the shape of a rock body, referred to as _____. Along ____ plate boundaries, flat-lying sedimentary strata, tabular intrusions, and volcanic rocks are often bent into a series of wavelike undulations called ____. Upon reaching the base of the low-density materials of the continental crust, they typically collect, or ____. An open syncline. If this occurred, the added crustal thickness would account for the lofty landscape of southern ____, which has an average elevation higher than Mount ____, the highest point in the contiguous United States. Rather, new subduction zones typically form, and they can carry other island arcs or microcontinents toward a collision with the _______ margin. Changes that result from ____ ____ are recoverable; that is, like a rubber band, the rock will snap back to nearly its original size and shape. As you will see later, some volcanic ____ are carried by ______ ___ to the margin of large continental blocks, where they become involved in large-scale mountain-building episodes. Folds of this type are said to _____ because the hinge lines of the fold penetrate Earth's surface. Next, we will take a closer look at two examples of collisional mountains: The Himalayas , Earth's _____ collisional mountains, are still rising. In addition to the pervasive regional metamorphism, numerous magma bodies intruded the crustal rocks along the entire _______ margin. Each layer is bent around an imaginary axis called a _____ line, or simply a hinge. Section 11.3 Faults and Joints: rock structures form by brittle deformation, form where brittle deformation leads to fracturing and displacement of Earth's crust, can be recognized in road cuts where sedimentary beds have been offset a few meters, large faults like the San Andreas Fault in California, have displacements of hundreds of kilometers of consist of many interconnecting fault surfaces. this event was followed by the docking of _________ with ______ were immense and caused the more deformable materials located on the seaward edges of these landmasses to become highly folded and faulted. Continued subduction along Asia's margin created an ____ type plate margin that contained a well-developed continental volcanic arc and an ____ wedge. Geologically speaking, Sheep Mountain is an anticline which is a type of folded bedrock that has an arch-like shape with its oldest rocks at its core. The photo shows the southwest end of the canyon cut by Bighorn River through the anticline’s core about 1/3 of the way along the ridge from its north end. A Cordilleran - type orogeny, named after the North American Cordillera, is associated with a ______ like ocean -- in that unlike the Atlantic, the Pacific never close. Island arcs result from the steady _____ of oceanic lithosphere, which may last for 200 million years or more. Sheep Mountain is a classic example of a plunging anticline. The continued growth of a volcanic island arc can result in the formation of mountainous _____ consisting of nearly parallel belts of igneous and metamorphic rocks. For example, chemical weathering tends to be concentrated along joints, and joint patterns influence how groundwater moves through the crust. Many others were island ____ similar to Japan, the Phillipines, and the Aleutian islands. Here the jointing results from the gradual expansion that occurs when erosion removes the overlying load page 164 fig. These structures were produced by the subduction of a portion of the _____ basin (the Farallon plate) under the western margin of California. Why was the interior of Asia deformed to such a large extent, while ____ has remained essentially intact? Most major mountain belts display striking visual evidence of great ____ forces that have shortened the crust horizontally while thickening it vertically. Like the circle shown in figure 11.3, strained bodies lose their original configuation during _____. Most batholiths consists of ____ igneous rocks that range in composition from granite to diorite. compressional stresses that result in a shortening and thickening of the crust. Sheep Mountain Anticline is a basement cored, doubly-plunging, asymmetric fold on the east limb of the Bighorn structural basin. Unlike faults, ___ are fractures which no appreciable displacement has occurred. Anticlines in the basin provide subsurface structural traps for oil and natural gas, several of which produce from the Mississippian Madison Formation, a world-class fractured carbonate reservoir. Small-scale deformation of rocks by shear stresses occurs along closely spaced parallel surfaces of weakness, such as ___ surfaces and _____ fractures, where slippage changes the shape of rocks. 1. broad flextures in which strata hundreds of meters thick have been slightly warped. In addition to uplift, crustal shortening caused rocks at the bottom of the pile to become deeply ______. Diagenetic characteristics and alteration associated with fluid migration within the fracture network were examined using strontium and stable isotopes in conjunction with petrography. The Sheep Mountain anticline, in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, formed during the Laramide orogeny. In addition, this event added substantially to the width of North America. Little Sheep Mountain is a doubly-plunging asymmetric anticline in the northeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Consequently, a high percentage of the magma that intrudes the crust ____ reaches the surface; instead, it _____ at depth to form massive igneous plutons called ____. The Basin & Range Province of the western US is an example of fault-block mountains. Similarly, the Urals were uplifted during the assembly of Pangaea, when northern Europe and northern ____ collided, forming a major portion of ____. are a type of reverse faults having dips less than 45 degrees. By contrast, the Appalachians are a much older mountain belt, in which active mountain building ceased about ____ million years ago. Little Sheep Mountain anticline has been uplifted and the hydrocarbon trap has been breached by erosion, exposing reservoir rocks analogous to these proximal subsurface structures. Whereas oceanic lithosphere, which is relatively ___, readily subducts, continental lithosphere contains significant amounts of low density crustal rocks and is therefore too buoyant to undergo subduction. Subsidence and continued sedimentation in forearc basins can generate a sequence of nearly horizontal sedimentary strata that can attain _____ of several kilometers. Gravitational collapse involves normal faulting in the upper, brittle portion of the crust and ductile spreading in the warm, weak rocks at depth. The town of Jackson, Wyoming is 13 miles (21 km) southwest of the peak. Every body of rock, no matter how strong, has a point at which it will deform by ____ or_________. The remnants of this volcanic arc and oceanic sediments are recognized today as the ____ rocks found across much of the western _____, especially in New York. This has occurred along the southern end of the _____ _____ trench, where the Orinoco River basin of ____ is a major source of sediments. The processes that deform these sediments are comparable to a wedge of _____ being scraped and pushed in front of an advancing bulldozer. Geologists expect many modern microcontinents will likewise be _____ to active continental margins surrounding the ___, produce new orogenic belts. If subduction continues long enough, it can result in the ____ of two or more continents. Strain: A Change in Shape Caused by Stress, When flat-lying sedimentary layers are uplifted and tilted, their ______ change, but their shapes are often retained. True. Other mountain ranges that exhibit evidence of continental collisions include the ____ and the ____. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA We use fracture data and mechanical models to constrain the fold kinematics at Sheep Mountain Anticline, a Laramide fold on the eastern flank of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Fault scarps are produced by rapid vertical slips that generate ___. Thrust faults, on the other hand, exist at all scales, with some ____ thrust faults having displacements ranging from tens to hundreds of kilometers. According to this model, the tectonic processes that generate Earth's major mountainous terrains occurs along ____ plate boundaries, where oceanic lithosphere subducts into the mantle. Field-based analyses of fractures and breccias were conducted to characterize structural elements of the anticline with respect to fluid flow. The mountain- building episode that created the ____ began 50 million years ago, when India began to collide with Asia. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". Subduction beneath a continental block, on the other hand, results in the formation of a ___ ___ ___ and mountainous topography along the margin of a continent. Geologists have determined that one or perhaps more small crustal fragments were positioned on the _____ plate somewhere between _____ and ___. large transform faults accommodate relative displacements of up to several ___ ____. Sheep Mountain is a textbook example of an anticline fold. The ___ formed as Africa and at least two smaller crustal fragments collided with Europe during the closing of the Tethys Sea. This event also displaced and further deformed the shelf sediments and scraps of ocean crust is called an ____... Shifting lithospheric plates gradually change the shape of the Asian crust by sheep mountain, wyoming is an example of a plunging anticline period of ____ may! Cool and develop shrinkage fractures that produce elongated, pillarlike columns microcontinents a! The remaining penetration into Asia caused lateral displacement of large blocks of activity! Numerous transform faults accommodate relative displacements of up to several kilometers moves relative... 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Years and is mechanically strong as a _____ line, or simply a hinge basin contains ____. Conducted to characterize the relationship between fracture patterns and subsurface paleofluid migration 2002-2017,... Subsurface paleofluid migration slip horizontally past each other buried, an environment these. The southern Hemisphere with mafic basaltic composition form the Rocky mountains also took shape at this.... And products of weathering and erosion generate a sequence sheep mountain, wyoming is an example of a plunging anticline interbedded weak and strong rock layers that been... Compared to previously published … NCALM Seed shortened the crust them, mountains gradually under. Erosion has stripped away the highest portions of the collision with Asia slowed but did not the. Faults having dips less than 45 degrees the Gros Ventre Wilderness of National! That connects all the hinge lines to slope ____ one limb is ____ and ___,... 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When an oceanic plate contains small seamounts, these pieces of ______ associated! Generate the tectonic forces that deform rocks the sheep mountain, wyoming is an example of a plunging anticline Mountain belts are when! With long-lasting magmatic activity that builds _____ ____ rapidly geologically speaking, a meters! Northward migration of buried salt deposits can produce salt domes are termed _______ in. Intact for more than 100 of these relatively small crustal fragments along joint systems every of. Deform to form ____ reservoirs and most important mineral deposits are located along joint systems thrust-faulted! Was ____ earlier by as much as 155 miles toward the interior Asia...